Institutional Strengthening and Reforms

A strong democratic state hinges on strong institutions. Institutions define the rules of engagement in the governance apparatus of a State. They outline the norms, laws and conventions to which state organizations and the actors therein are to conform and set the boundaries of individual discretionary action. To make institutions effective, they must be designed to resist manipulation by authorities, configured to operate efficiently and modeled to drive professionalism and integrity of actors.  According to North (1990), “institutional change is shaped by (i) the lock-in that comes from the symbiotic relationship between institutions and the organizations that have evolved as a consequence of the incentive structure provided by those institutions and (ii) the feedback process by which human beings perceive and react to changes in the opportunity set”. Within this sub-thematic field, we analyse the institutional matrix of the public sector with a focus on durability and order as well as the amenability of organs and bodies to change. It examines the structures of decentralization and local governance and the implementation challenge thereof.  We also monitor the enforcement of institutional regulations and the combination of incentives and sanctions that monitor the conduct of actors therein. Activities being monitored include: effective task execution, capacity and resource endowment, oversight efficiency, turf war analysis, decision making analysis, among others. It will also promote structural reforms, facilitate demand-driven technical support and capacity development towards greater transparency, coordination and accountability.